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LS.LSa.St.Tal
Talitrids on the upper shore and strand-line

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Habitat (physical) description

Distribution

 Salinity: Full (30-35 ppt), Variable (18-35 ppt) 
 Wave exposure: Exposed, Moderately exposed, Sheltered, Very sheltered 
 Tidal streams:  
 Substratum: Shingle; sand 
 Zone:  
 Depth Band: Mid shore, Strandline, Upper shore 
 Other Features:  

Download comparative physical and biological data. The comparative tables enable a rapid comparison of the species composition and principal physical characteristics between a given set of biotopes.

Previous code

This biotope occurred in previous versions of the classification as:
LGS.S.Tal - Version: 97.06
LMXD.TAL - Version: 6.95

Distribution of habitat LS.LSa.St.Tal  Talitrids on the upper shore and strand-line
Distribution of habitat LS.LSa.St.Tal Talitrids on the upper shore and strand-line, based on records on the UK Marine Recorder database and EUSeaMap. Red dots represent records on which the biotope is based. Blue dots show other certain records, black dots show records tentatively assigned to this biotope. Yellow areas show level 2 and 3 sublittoral and deep-sea habitats prediced by EUSeaMap within UK waters.

Biotope description

A community of sandhoppers (talitrid amphipods) may occur on any shore where driftlines of decomposing seaweed and other debris accumulate on the strandline. The biotope occurs most frequently on medium and fine sandy shores, but may also occur on a wide variety of sediment shores composed of muddy sediment, shingle and mixed substrata, or on rocky shores. The decaying seaweed provides cover and humidity for the sandhopper Talitrus saltator. In places on sand that regularly accumulate larger amounts of weed, Talorchestia deshayesii is often present. Oligochaetes, mainly enchytraeids, can occur where the stranded debris remains damp as a result of freshwater seepage across the shore or mass accumulation of weed in shaded situations. On shingle and gravel shores and behind saltmarshes the strandline talitrid species tend to be mainly Orchestia species. Abundances of the characterising species tend to be highly patchy. Two characterising species lists are presented below. They are derived from two sets of data, which were analysed separately. The first shows data from infaunal samples, the second shows data from epifaunal samples. The epifaunal lists contains no counts per square metre, as the data were collected on the SACFOR scale.

Situation

Tal may occur on the same shore as a range of sediment (especially sandy) biotopes, where driftlines of algae and other debris accumulate on the upper shore. These biotopes include BarSh, BarSa, Ol, AmSco, and Po. The biotope also occurs at the back of boulder, cobble and pebble shores, above mixed sediment and rocky biotopes.

Temporal variation

This biotope varies in its position between spring and neap tides, and as a result of changing weather. After storms, it may extend into the fore dunes, during spring tides it will occur high on the shore, and during neaps the greatest numbers of talitrids may be found at or just below MHWN level. The amount of debris washed up on strandlines, and hence the extent of this biotope, may also vary significantly depending on factors such as recent storms or high tides.

Similar biotopes

LS.LSa.MoSa.BarSaOccurs in similar physical conditions, in medium to fine mobile sands. Tal may occur on driftlines on the upper shore above (on) BarSa.
LS.LSa.MoSa.AmSco.EurOccurs in slightly more sheltered conditions in medium to fine mobile sands. AmSco.Eur occurs lower down on the shore than Tal, and is not confined to driftlines. It has a higher diversity of species, particularly amphipods such as Bathyporeia spp.

Characterising Species

Taxa Frequency Typical Abundance % Contribution to similarity Abundance (no.2)
Oligochaeta C 11 254
Enchytraeidae P 2 50
Talitridae P 26
Talitrus saltator P 27
Talitrus saltator C 87 1180
Talorchestia deshayesii P 26

Example photographs of biotope


Sandy shore backed by dunes, W Peffer Sands, North Berwick., Rohan Holt, © JNCC View along sand and gravel shore backed by seawall. Strandline debris, West shore, Llandudno, Paul Brazier, © JNCC Piece of seaweed with amphipod holes around it, South Beach, Pwllheli, Gwynedd, Paul Brazier, © JNCC
Click on an image for a larger view


Version 15.03 of the classification adds a deep-sea section to version 04.05; therefore superseding version 04.05, 97.06 and 03.02.

This online classification should be cited as:

JNCC (2015) The Marine Habitat Classification for Britain and Ireland Version 15.03 [Online]. [Date accessed]. Available from: jncc.defra.gov.uk/MarineHabitatClassification

Information from the shallower section (up to sublittoral sediment, taken from Version 04.05) be cited as the report accompanying Version 04.05, as follows:

CONNOR, D.W., J.H. ALLEN, N.GOLDING, K.L.HOWELL, L.M. LIEBERKNECHT, K.O. NORTHEN AND J.B. REKER (2004) The Marine Habitat Classification for Britain and Ireland Version 04.05. In: JNCC (2015) The Marine Habitat Classification for Britain and Ireland Version 15.03 [Online]. [Date accessed].
Available from: jncc.defra.gov.uk/MarineHabitatClassification
ISBN 1 861 07561 8


Information from the deep-sea section (added in March 2015) should be cited as the report accompanying the deep-sea section, as follows:

PARRY, M.E.V., K.L. HOWELL, B.E. NARAYANASWAMY, B.J. BETT, D.O.B. JONES, D.J. HUGHES, N. PIECHAUD, T.D. NICKELL, H. ELLWOOD, N. ASKEW, C. JENKINS and E. MANCA (2015) A Deep-sea Section for the Marine Habitat Classification of Britain and Ireland. JNCC report 530. In: JNCC (2015) The Marine Habitat Classification for Britain and Ireland Version 15.03 [Online]. [Date accessed].
Available from: jncc.defra.gov.uk/MarineHabitatClassification
ISSN 0963 8901