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Marine Habitat Classification Hierarchy

Expand hierarchy to: Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Level 6
  Marine (Level 1)
  Littoral rock (and other hard substrata)
  High energy littoral rock
  Mussel and/or barnacle communities
  Mytilus edulis and barnacles on very exposed eulittoral rock
  Chthamalus spp. on exposed eulittoral rock
  Chthamalus spp. on exposed upper eulittoral rock
  Chthamalus spp. and Lichina pygmaea on steep exposed upper eulittoral rock
  Semibalanus balanoides on exposed to moderately exposed or vertical sheltered eulittoral rock
  Semibalanus balanoides, Patella vulgata and Littorina spp. on exposed to moderately exposed or vertical sheltered eulittoral rock
  Semibalanus balanoides, Fucus vesiculosus and red seaweeds on exposed to moderately exposed eulittoral rock
  Semibalanus balanoides and Littorina spp. on exposed to moderately exposed eulittoral boulders and cobbles
  Robust fucoid and/or red seaweed communities
  Fucus distichus and Fucus spiralis f. nana on extremely exposed upper shore rock
  Corallina officinalis on exposed to moderately exposed lower eulittoral rock
  Corallina officinalis and Mastocarpus stellatus on exposed to moderately exposed lower eulittoral rock
  Corallina officinalis, Himanthalia elongata and Patella ulyssiponensis on very exposed lower eulittoral rock
  Himanthalia elongata and red seaweeds on exposed to moderately exposed lower eulittoral rock
  Palmaria palmata on very exposed to moderately exposed lower eulittoral rock
  Mastocarpus stellatus and Chondrus crispus on very exposed to moderately exposed lower eulittoral rock
  Osmundea pinnatifida on moderately exposed mid eulittoral rock
  Ceramium sp. and piddocks on eulittoral fossilised peat
  Fucoids in tide-swept conditions
  Ascophyllum nodosum, sponges and ascidians on tide-swept mid eulittoral rock
  Fucus serratus, sponges and ascidians on tide-swept lower eulittoral rock
  Fucus serratus with sponges, ascidians and red seaweeds on tide-swept lower eulittoral mixed substrata
  Moderate energy littoral rock
  Mussels and fucoids on moderately exposed shores
  Mytilus edulis and Fucus vesiculosus on moderately exposed mid eulittoral rock
  Mytilus edulis, Fucus serratus and red seaweeds on moderately exposed lower eulittoral rock
  Mytilus edulis and piddocks on eulittoral firm clay
  Barnacles and fucoids on moderately exposed shores
  Pelvetia canaliculata and barnacles on moderately exposed littoral fringe rock
  Fucus spiralis on exposed to moderately exposed upper eulittoral rock
  Fucus vesiculosus and barnacle mosaics on moderately exposed mid eulittoral rock
  Fucus serratus on moderately exposed lower eulittoral rock
  Fucus serratus and red seaweeds on moderately exposed lower eulittoral rock
  Fucus serratus and under-boulder fauna on exposed to moderately exposed lower eulittoral boulders
  Fucus serratus and piddocks on lower eulittoral soft rock
  Rhodothamniella floridula on sand-scoured lower eulittoral rock
  Low energy littoral rock
  Fucoids on sheltered marine shores
  Pelvetia canaliculata on sheltered littoral fringe rock
  Fucus spiralis on sheltered upper eulittoral rock
  Fucus spiralis on full salinity sheltered upper eulittoral rock
  Fucus spiralis on full salinity upper eulittoral mixed substrata
  Fucus vesiculosus on moderately exposed to sheltered mid eulittoral rock
  Fucus vesiculosus on full salinity moderately exposed to sheltered mid eulittoral rock
  Fucus vesiculosus on mid eulittoral mixed substrata
  Ascophyllum nodosum on very sheltered mid eulittoral rock
  Ascophyllum nodosum on full salinity mid eulittoral rock
  Ascophyllum nodosum on full salinity mid eulittoral mixed substrata
  Fucus serratus on sheltered lower eulittoral rock
  Fucus serratus on full salinity sheltered lower eulittoral rock
  Fucus serratus on full salinity lower eulittoral mixed substrata
  Fucoids in variable salinity
  Pelvetia canaliculata on sheltered variable salinity littoral fringe rock
  Fucus spiralis on sheltered variable salinity upper eulittoral rock
  Fucus vesiculosus on variable salinity mid eulittoral boulders and stable mixed substrata
  Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus on variable salinity mid eulittoral rock
  Ascophyllum nodosum ecad mackaii beds on extremely sheltered mid eulittoral mixed substrata
  Fucus serratus and large Mytilus edulis on variable salinity lower eulittoral rock
  Fucus ceranoides on reduced salinity eulittoral rock
  Features of littoral rock
  Lichens or small green algae on supralittoral and littoral fringe rock
  Yellow and grey lichens on supralittoral rock
  Prasiola stipitata on nitrate-enriched supralittoral or littoral fringe rock
  Verrucaria maura on littoral fringe rock
  Verrucaria maura and sparse barnacles on exposed littoral fringe rock
  Verrucaria maura on very exposed to very sheltered upper littoral fringe rock
  Blidingia spp. on vertical littoral fringe soft rock
  Ulothrix flacca and Urospora spp. on freshwater-influenced vertical littoral fringe soft rock
  Rockpools
  Green seaweeds (Enteromorpha spp. and Cladophora spp.) in shallow upper shore rockpools
  Coralline crust-dominated shallow eulittoral rockpools
  Coralline crusts and Corallina officinalis in shallow eulittoral rockpools
  Coralline crusts and Paracentrotus lividus in shallow eulittoral rockpools
  Bifurcaria bifurcata in shallow eulittoral rockpools
  Cystoseira spp. in eulittoral rockpools
  Fucoids and kelp in deep eulittoral rockpools
  Sargassum muticum in eulittoral rockpools
  Seaweeds in sediment-floored eulittoral rockpools
  Hydroids, ephemeral seaweeds and Littorina littorea in shallow eulittoral mixed substrata pools
  Littoral caves and overhangs
  Chrysophyceae and Haptophyceae on vertical upper littoral fringe soft rock
  Green algal films on upper and mid-shore cave walls and ceilings
  Audouinella purpurea and Pilinia maritima crusts on upper and mid-shore cave walls and ceilings
  Audouinella purpurea and Cladophora rupestris on upper to mid-shore cave walls
  Verrucaria mucosa and/or Hildenbrandia rubra on upper to mid shore cave walls
  Sponges and shade-tolerant red seaweeds on overhanging lower eulittoral bedrock and in cave entrances
  Sponges, shade-tolerant red seaweeds and Dendrodoa grossularia on wave-surged overhanging lower eulittoral bedrock and caves
  Sponges, bryozoans and ascidians on deeply overhanging lower shore bedrock or caves
  Faunal crusts on wave-surged littoral cave walls
  Sparse fauna (barnacles and spirorbids) on sand/pebble-scoured rock in littoral caves
  Barren and/or boulder-scoured littoral cave walls and floors
  Ephemeral green or red seaweed communities (freshwater or sand-influenced)
  Enteromorpha spp. on freshwater-influenced and/or unstable upper eulittoral rock
  Porphyra purpurea and Enteromorpha spp. on sand-scoured mid or lower eulittoral rock
  Ephemeral green and red seaweeds on variable salinity and/or disturbed eulittoral mixed substrata
  Barnacles and Littorina spp. on unstable eulittoral mixed substrata
  Littoral sediment
  Littoral coarse sediment
  Shingle (pebble) and gravel shores
  Barren littoral shingle
  Pectenogammarus planicrurus in mid shore well-sorted gravel or coarse sand
  Littoral sand
  Strandline
  Talitrids on the upper shore and strand-line
  Mytilus edulis and Fabricia sabella in littoral mixed sediment
  Barren or amphipod-dominated mobile sand shores
  Barren littoral coarse sand
  Oligochaetes in littoral mobile sand
  Oligochaetes in full salinity littoral mobile sand
  Oligochaetes in variable salinity littoral mobile sand
  Amphipods and Scolelepis spp. in littoral medium-fine sand
  Scolelepis spp. in littoral mobile sand
  Eurydice pulchra in littoral mobile sand
  Pontocrates arenarius in littoral mobile sand
  Polychaete/amphipod-dominated fine sand shores
  Polychaetes in littoral fine sand
  Polychaetes, including Paraonis fulgens, in littoral fine sand
  Polychaetes and Angulus tenuis in littoral fine sand
  Nephtys cirrosa-dominated littoral fine sand
  Polychaete/bivalve-dominated muddy sand shores
  Macoma balthica and Arenicola marina in littoral muddy sand
  Cerastoderma edule and polychaetes in littoral muddy sand
  Hediste diversicolor, Macoma balthica and Eteone longa in littoral muddy sand
  Bathyporeia pilosa and Corophium arenarium in littoral muddy sand
  Lanice conchilega in littoral sand
  Littoral mud
  Polychaete/bivalve-dominated mid estuarine mud shores
  Nephtys hombergii, Macoma balthica and Streblospio shrubsolii in littoral sandy mud
  Hediste diversicolor and Macoma balthica in littoral sandy mud
  Hediste diversicolor, Macoma balthica and Scrobicularia plana in littoral sandy mud
  Polychaete/oligochaete-dominated upper estuarine mud shores
  Nephtys hombergii and Streblospio shrubsolii in littoral mud
  Hediste diversicolor in littoral mud
  Hediste diversicolor and Streblospio shrubsolii in littoral sandy mud
  Hediste diversicolor and Corophium volutator in littoral mud
  Hediste diversicolor and oligochaetes in littoral mud
  Tubificoides benedii and other oligochaetes in littoral mud
  Littoral mixed sediment
  Hediste-dominated gravelly sandy mud shores
  Hediste diversicolor in littoral gravelly muddy sand and gravelly sandy mud
  Hediste diversicolor and Macoma balthica in littoral gravelly mud
  Hediste diversicolor and Scrobicularia plana in littoral gravelly mud
  Hediste diversicolor and Streblospio shrubsolii in littoral gravelly sandy mud
  Hediste diversicolor, cirratulids and Tubificoides spp. in littoral gravelly sandy mud
  Hediste diversicolor and Corophium volutator in littoral gravelly sandy mud
  Species-rich mixed sediment shores
  Cirratulids and Cerastoderma edule in littoral mixed sediment
  Littoral macrophyte-dominated sediment
  Saltmarsh
  Littoral seagrass beds
  Zostera noltii beds in littoral muddy sand
  Littoral biogenic reefs
  Littoral Sabellaria honeycomb worm reefs
  Sabellaria alveolata reefs on sand-abraded eulittoral rock
  Littoral mussel beds on sediment
  Mytilus edulis beds on littoral sediments
  Mytilus edulis beds on littoral mixed substrata
  Mytilus edulis beds on littoral sand
  Mytilus edulis beds on littoral mud
  Infralittoral rock (and other hard substrata)
  High energy infralittoral rock
  Kelp with cushion fauna and/or foliose red seaweeds
  Alaria esculenta on exposed sublittoral fringe bedrock
  Alaria esculenta, Mytilus edulis and coralline crusts on very exposed sublittoral fringe bedrock
  Alaria esculenta and Laminaria digitata on exposed sublittoral fringe bedrock
  Alaria esculenta forest with dense anemones and crustose sponges on extremely exposed infralittoral bedrock
  Laminaria hyperborea forest with a faunal cushion (sponges and polyclinids) and foliose red seaweeds on very exposed upper infralittoral rock
  Sparse Laminaria hyperborea and dense Paracentrotus lividus on exposed infralittoral limestone
  Laminaria hyperborea with dense foliose red seaweeds on exposed infralittoral rock
  Laminaria hyperborea forest with dense foliose red seaweeds on exposed upper infralittoral rock
  Laminaria hyperborea park with dense foliose red seaweeds on exposed lower infralittoral rock
  Mixed Laminaria hyperborea and Laminaria ochroleuca forest on exposed infralittoral rock
  Foliose red seaweeds on exposed lower infralittoral rock
  Foliose red seaweeds with dense Dictyota dichotoma and/or Dictyopteris membranacea on exposed lower infralittoral rock
  Laminaria hyperborea and red seaweeds on exposed vertical rock
  Sediment-affected or disturbed kelp and seaweed communities
  Saccorhiza polyschides and other opportunistic kelps on disturbed sublittoral fringe rock
  Laminaria saccharina and/or Saccorhiza polyschides on exposed infralittoral rock
  Laminaria saccharina, Chorda filum and dense red seaweeds on shallow unstable infralittoral boulders or cobbles
  Dense Desmarestia spp. with filamentous red seaweeds on exposed infralittoral cobbles, pebbles and bedrock
  Mixed kelps with scour-tolerant and opportunistic foliose red seaweeds on scoured or sand-covered infralittoral rock
  Halidrys siliquosa and mixed kelps on tide-swept infralittoral rock with coarse sediment
  Polyides rotundus, Ahnfeltia plicata and Chondrus crispus on sand-covered infralittoral rock
  Moderate energy infralittoral rock
  Kelp and red seaweeds (moderate energy infralittoral rock)
  Laminaria digitata on moderately exposed sublittoral fringe rock
  Laminaria digitata on moderately exposed sublittoral fringe bedrock
  Laminaria digitata and under-boulder fauna on sublittoral fringe boulders
  Laminaria digitata and piddocks on sublittoral fringe soft rock
  Laminaria hyperborea on tide-swept, infralittoral rock
  Laminaria hyperborea forest, foliose red seaweeds and a diverse fauna on tide-swept upper infralittoral rock
  Laminaria hyperborea park with hydroids, bryozoans and sponges on tide-swept lower infralittoral rock
  Laminaria hyperborea on tide-swept infralittoral mixed substrata
  Laminaria hyperborea forest and foliose red seaweeds on tide-swept upper infralittoral mixed substrata
  Laminaria hyperborea park and foliose red seaweeds on tide-swept lower infralittoral mixed substrata
  Laminaria hyperborea and foliose red seaweeds on moderately exposed infralittoral rock
  Laminaria hyperborea forest and foliose red seaweeds on moderately exposed upper infralittoral rock
  Laminaria hyperborea park and foliose red seaweeds on moderately exposed lower infralittoral rock
  Grazed Laminaria hyperborea forest with coralline crusts on upper infralittoral rock
  Grazed Laminaria hyperborea park with coralline crusts on lower infralittoral rock
  Sabellaria spinulosa with kelp and red seaweeds on sand-influenced infralittoral rock
  Dense foliose red seaweeds on silty moderately exposed infralittoral rock
  Laminaria hyperborea on moderately exposed vertical rock.
  Hiatella arctica and seaweeds on vertical limestone / chalk.
  Kelp and seaweed communities in tide-swept sheltered conditions
  Laminaria digitata, ascidians and bryozoans on tide-swept sublittoral fringe rock
  Mixed kelp with foliose red seaweeds, sponges and ascidians on sheltered tide-swept infralittoral rock
  Mixed kelp and red seaweeds on infralittoral boulders, cobbles and gravel in tidal rapids
  Laminaria saccharina with foliose red seaweeds and ascidians on sheltered tide-swept infralittoral rock
  Filamentous red seaweeds, sponges and Balanus crenatus on tide-swept variable-salinity infralittoral rock
  Low energy infralittoral rock
  Silted kelp communities (sheltered infralittoral rock)
  Mixed Laminaria hyperborea and Laminaria ochroleuca forest on moderately exposed or sheltered infralittoral rock
  Mixed Laminaria hyperborea and Laminaria saccharina on sheltered infralittoral rock
  Mixed Laminaria hyperborea and Laminaria saccharina forest on sheltered upper infralittoral rock
  Mixed Laminaria hyperborea and Laminaria saccharina park on sheltered lower infralittoral rock
  Grazed, mixed Laminaria hyperborea and Laminaria saccharina on sheltered infralittoral rock
  Laminaria saccharina on very sheltered infralittoral rock
  Laminaria saccharina and Laminaria digitata on sheltered sublittoral fringe rock
  Laminaria saccharina forest on very sheltered upper infralittoral rock
  Laminaria saccharina park on very sheltered lower infralittoral rock
  Grazed Laminaria saccharina with Echinus, brittlestars and coralline crusts on sheltered infralittoral rock
  Silted cape-form Laminaria hyperborea on very sheltered infralittoral rock
  Sargassum muticum on shallow slightly tide-swept infralittoral mixed substrata
  Kelp in variable or reduced salinity
  Codium spp. with red seaweeds and sparse Laminaria saccharina on shallow, heavily-silted, very sheltered infralittoral rock
  Laminaria saccharina and Psammechinus miliaris on variable salinity grazed infralittoral rock
  Laminaria saccharina with Phyllophora spp. and filamentous green seaweeds on variable or reduced salinity infralittoral rock
  Faunal communities on variable or reduced salinity infralittoral rock
  Mytilus edulis beds on reduced salinity infralittoral rock
  Cordylophora caspia and Electra crustulenta on reduced salinity infralittoral rock
  Hartlaubella gelatinosa and Conopeum reticulum on low salinity infralittoral mixed substrata
  Submerged fucoids, green or red seaweeds (low salinity infralittoral rock)
  Ascophyllum nodosum with epiphytic sponges and ascidians on variable salinity infralittoral rock
  Mixed fucoids, Chorda filum and green seaweeds on reduced salinity infralittoral rock
  Polyides rotundus and/or Furcellaria lumbricalis on reduced salinity infralittoral rock
  Fucus ceranoides and Enteromorpha spp. on low salinity infralittoral rock
  Features of infralittoral rock
  Infralittoral surge gullies and caves
  Foliose seaweeds and coralline crusts in surge gully entrances
  Anemones, including Corynactis viridis, crustose sponges and colonial ascidians on very exposed or wave surged vertical infralittoral rock
  Crustose sponges and colonial ascidians with Dendrodoa grossularia or barnacles on wave-surged infralittoral rock
  Dendrodoa grossularia and Clathrina coriacea on wave-surged vertical infralittoral rock
  Crustose sponges on extremely wave-surged infralittoral cave or gully walls
  Coralline crusts in surge gullies and scoured infralittoral rock
  Balanus crenatus and/or Pomatoceros triqueter with spirorbid worms and coralline crusts on severely-scoured vertical infralittoral rock
  Coralline crusts and crustaceans on mobile boulders or cobbles in surge gullies
  Infralittoral fouling seaweed communities
  Circalittoral rock (and other hard substrata)
  High energy circalittoral rock
  Very tide-swept faunal communities
  Balanus crenatus and Tubularia indivisa on extremely tide-swept circalittoral rock
  Tubularia indivisa on tide-swept circalittoral rock
  Tubularia indivisa and cushion sponges on tide-swept turbid circalittoral bedrock
  Alcyonium digitatum with dense Tubularia indivisa and anemones on strongly tide-swept circalittoral rock
  Deep sponge communities (circalittoral)
  Phakellia ventilabrum and Axinellid sponges on deep, wave- exposed circalittoral rock
  Mixed faunal turf communities
  Bryozoan turf and erect sponges on tide-swept circalittoral rock
  Eunicella verrucosa and Pentapora foliacea on wave-exposed circalittoral rock
  Mixed turf of bryozoans and erect sponges with Dysidea fragilis and Actinothoe sphyrodeta on tide-swept wave-exposed circalittoral rock
  Mixed turf of bryozoans and erect sponges with Sagartia elegans on tide-swept ciraclittoral rock
  Corynactis viridis and a mixed turf of crisiids, Bugula, Scrupocellaria, and Cellaria on moderately tide-swept exposed circalittoral rock
  Mixed turf of hydroids and large ascidians with Swiftia pallida and Caryophyllia smithii on weakly tide-swept circalittoral rock
  Flustra foliacea and colonial ascidians on tide-swept moderately wave-exposed circalittoral rock
  Polyclinum aurantium and Flustra foliacea on sand-scoured tide-swept moderately wave-exposed circalittoral rock
  Flustra foliacea, small solitary and colonial ascidians on tide-swept circalittoral bedrock or boulders
  Flustra foliacea and colonial ascidians on tide-swept exposed circalittoral mixed substrata
  Sparse sponges, Nemertesia spp. and Alcyonidium diaphanum on circalittoral mixed substrata
  Suberites spp. with a mixed turf of crisiids and Bugula spp. on heavily silted moderately wave-exposed shallow circalittoral rock
  Flustra foliacea and Haliclona oculata with a rich faunal turf on tide-swept circalittoral mixed substrata
  Molgula manhattensis with a hydroid and bryozoan turf on tide-swept moderately wave-exposed circalittoral rock
  Sponges and anemones on vertical circalittoral bedrock
  Moderate energy circalittoral rock
  Echinoderms and crustose communities
  Caryophyllia smithii and Swiftia pallida on circalittoral rock
  Caryophyllia smithii, Swiftia pallida and Alcyonium glomeratum on wave-sheltered circalittoral rock
  Caryophyllia smithii, Swiftia pallida and large solitary ascidians on exposed or moderately exposed circalittoral rock
  Caryophyllia smithii, sponges and crustose communities on wave-exposed circalittoral rock
  Brittlestars overlying coralline crusts, Parasmittina trispinosa and Caryophyllia smithii on wave-exposed circalittoral rock
  Caryophyllia smithii and sponges with Pentapora foliacea, Porella compressa and crustose communities on wave-exposed circalittoral rock
  Urticina felina and sand-tolerant fauna on sand-scoured or covered circalittoral rock
  Faunal and algal crusts on exposed to moderately wave-exposed circalittoral rock
  Flustra foliacea on slightly scoured silty circalittoral rock
  Alcyonium digitatum, Pomatoceros triqueter, algal and bryozoan crusts on wave-exposed circalittoral rock
  Alcyonium digitatum with Securiflustra securifrons on tide-swept moderately wave-exposed circalittoral rock
  Brittlestars on faunal and algal encrusted exposed to moderately wave-exposed circalittoral rock
  Faunal and algal crusts with Pomatoceros triqueter and sparse Alcyonium digitatum on exposed to moderately wave-exposed circalittoral rock
  Caryophyllia smithii with faunal and algal crusts on moderately wave-exposed circalittoral rock
  Alcyonium digitatum and faunal crust communities on vertical circalittoral bedrock
  Circalittoral Sabellaria reefs (on rock)
  Sabellaria spinulosa encrusted circalittoral rock
  Sabellaria spinulosa with a bryozoan turf and barnacles on silty turbid circalittoral rock
  Sabellaria spinulosa, didemnids and other small ascidians on tide-swept moderately wave-exposed circalittoral rock
  Soft rock communities
  Piddocks with a sparse associated fauna in sublittoral very soft chalk or clay
  Polydora sp. tubes on moderately exposed sublittoral soft rock
  Hiatella-bored vertical sublittoral limestone rock
  Circalittoral mussel beds on rock
  Mytilus edulis beds with hydroids and ascidians on tide-swept exposed to moderately wave-exposed circalittoral rock
  Musculus discors beds on moderately exposed circalittoral rock
  Circalittoral faunal communities in variable salinity
  Cushion sponges and hydroids on turbid tide-swept sheltered circalittoral rock
  Cushion sponges, hydroids and ascidians on turbid tide-swept sheltered circalittoral rock
  Cushion sponges and hydroids on turbid tide-swept variable salinity sheltered circalittoral rock
  Halichondria bowerbanki, Eudendrium arbusculum and Eucratea loricata on reduced salinity tide-swept circalittoral mixed substrata
  Low energy circalittoral rock
  Brachiopod and ascidian communities
  Solitary ascidians, including Ascidia mentula and Ciona intestinalis, on wave-sheltered circalittoral rock
  Solitary ascidians, including Ascidia mentula and Ciona intestinalis, with Antedon spp. on wave-sheltered circalittoral rock
  Dense brittlestars with sparse Ascidia mentula and Ciona intestinalis on sheltered circalittoral mixed substrata
  Large solitary ascidians and erect sponges on wave-sheltered circalittoral rock
  Antedon spp., solitary ascidians and fine hydroids on sheltered circalittoral rock
  Neocrania anomala and Protanthea simplex on sheltered circalittoral rock
  Neocrania anomala and Protanthea simplex on very wave-sheltered circalittoral rock
  Neocrania anomala, Dendrodoa grossularia and Sarcodictyon roseum on variable salinity circalittoral rock
  Features of circalittoral rock
  Circalittoral caves and overhangs
  Sponges, cup corals and anthozoans on shaded or overhanging circalittoral rock
  Circalittoral fouling faunal communities
  Alcyonium digitatum and Metridium senile on moderately wave-exposed circalittoral steel wrecks
  Ascidiella aspersa on circalittoral artificial substrata
  Sublittoral sediment
  Sublittoral coarse sediment (unstable cobbles and pebbles, gravels and coarse sands)
  Sublittoral coarse sediment in variable salinity (estuaries)
  Infralittoral coarse sediment
  Sparse fauna on highly mobile sublittoral shingle (cobbles and pebbles)
  Halcampa chrysanthellum and Edwardsia timida on sublittoral clean stone gravel
  Moerella spp. with venerid bivalves in infralittoral gravelly sand
  Hesionura elongata and Microphthalmus similis with other interstitial polychaetes in infralittoral mobile coarse sand
  Glycera lapidum in impoverished infralittoral mobile gravel and sand
  Cumaceans and Chaetozone setosa in infralittoral gravelly sand
  Dense Lanice conchilega and other polychaetes in tide-swept infralittoral sand and mixed gravelly sand
  Circalittoral coarse sediment
  Pomatoceros triqueter with barnacles and bryozoan crusts on unstable circalittoral cobbles and pebbles
  Mediomastus fragilis, Lumbrineris spp. and venerid bivalves in circalittoral coarse sand or gravel
  Protodorvillea kefersteini and other polychaetes in impoverished circalittoral mixed gravelly sand
  Neopentadactyla mixta in circalittoral shell gravel or coarse sand
  Branchiostoma lanceolatum in circalittoral coarse sand with shell gravel
  Offshore circalittoral coarse sediment
  Glycera lapidum, Thyasira spp. and Amythasides macroglossus in offshore gravelly sand
  Hesionura elongata and Protodorvillea kefersteini in offshore coarse sand
  Sublittoral sands and muddy sands
  Sublittoral sand in low or reduced salinity (lagoons)
  Sublittoral sand in variable salinity (estuaries)
  Infralittoral mobile sand in variable salinity (estuaries)
  Nephtys cirrosa and Macoma balthica in variable salinity infralittoral mobile sand
  Neomysis integer and Gammarus spp. in fluctuating low salinity infralittoral mobile sand
  Infralittoral fine sand
  Infralittoral mobile clean sand with sparse fauna
  Sertularia cupressina and Hydrallmania falcata on tide-swept sublittoral sand with cobbles or pebbles.
  Nephtys cirrosa and Bathyporeia spp. in infralittoral sand
  Semi-permanent tube-building amphipods and polychaetes in sublittoral sand
  Infralittoral muddy sand
  Echinocardium cordatum and Ensis spp. in lower shore and shallow sublittoral slightly muddy fine sand
  Fabulina fabula and Magelona mirabilis with venerid bivalves and amphipods in infralittoral compacted fine muddy sand
  Arenicola marina in infralittoral fine sand or muddy sand
  Spisula subtruncata and Nephtys hombergii in shallow muddy sand
  Circalittoral fine sand
  Echinocyamus pusillus, Ophelia borealis and Abra prismatica in circalittoral fine sand
  Abra prismatica, Bathyporeia elegans and polychaetes in circalittoral fine sand
  Circalittoral muddy sand
  Abra alba and Nucula nitidosa in circalittoral muddy sand or slightly mixed sediment
  Amphiura brachiata with Astropecten irregularis and other echinoderms in circalittoral muddy sand
  Offshore circalittoral sand
  Maldanid polychaetes and Eudorellopsis deformis in offshore circalittoral sand or muddy sand
  Owenia fusiformis and Amphiura filiformis in offshore circalittoral sand or muddy sand
  Sublittoral cohesive mud and sandy mud communities
  Sublittoral mud in low or reduced salinity (lagoons)
  Sublittoral mud in variable salinity (estuaries)
  Polydora ciliata and Corophium volutator in variable salinity infralittoral firm mud or clay
  Aphelochaeta marioni and Tubificoides spp. in variable salinity infralittoral mud
  Nephtys hombergii and Tubificoides spp. in variable salinity infralittoral soft mud
  Infralittoral fluid mobile mud
  Capitella capitata and Tubificoides spp. in reduced salinity infralittoral muddy sediment
  Oligochaetes in variable or reduced salinity infralittoral muddy sediment
  Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri, Tubifex tubifex and Gammarus spp. in low salinity infralittoral muddy sediment
  Infralittoral sandy mud
  Nephtys hombergii and Macoma balthica in infralittoral sandy mud
  Sagartiogeton undatus and Ascidiella aspersa on infralittoral sandy mud
  Mysella bidentata and Abra spp. in infralittoral sandy mud
  Melinna palmata with Magelona spp. and Thyasira spp. in infralittoral sandy mud
  Ampelisca spp., Photis longicaudata and other tube-building amphipods and polychaetes in infralittoral sandy mud
  Capitella capitata in enriched sublittoral muddy sediments
  Infralittoral fine mud
  Cerastoderma edule with Abra nitida in infralittoral mud
  Arenicola marina in infralittoral mud
  Philine aperta and Virgularia mirabilis in soft stable infralittoral mud
  Ocnus planci aggregations on sheltered sublittoral muddy sediment
  Beggiatoa spp. on anoxic sublittoral mud
  Circalittoral sandy mud
  Amphiura filiformis, Mysella bidentata and Abra nitida in circalittoral sandy mud
  Thyasira spp. and Nuculoma tenuis in circalittoral sandy mud
  Amphiura filiformis and Nuculoma tenuis in circalittoral and offshore sandy mud
  Virgularia mirabilis and Ophiura spp. with Pecten maximus on circalittoral sandy or shelly mud
  Virgularia mirabilis and Ophiura spp. with Pecten maximus, hydroids and ascidians on circalittoral sandy or shelly mud with stones
  Lagis koreni and Phaxas pellucidus in circalittoral sandy mud
  Circalittoral fine mud
  Seapens and burrowing megafauna in circalittoral fine mud
  Seapens, including Funiculina quadrangularis, and burrowing megafauna in undisturbed circalittoral fine mud
  Burrowing megafauna and Maxmuelleria lankesteri in circalittoral mud
  Brissopsis lyrifera and Amphiura chiajei in circalittoral mud
  Offshore circalittoral mud
  Ampharete falcata turf with Parvicardium ovale on cohesive muddy sediment near margins of deep stratified seas
  Foraminiferans and Thyasira sp. in deep circalittoral fine mud
  Styela gelatinosa, Pseudamussium septemradiatum and solitary ascidians on sheltered deep circalittoral muddy sediment
  Capitella capitata and Thyasira spp. in organically-enriched offshore circalittoral mud and sandy mud
  Capitella capitata, Thyasira spp. and Ophryotrocha dubia in organically-enriched offshore circalittoral sandy mud
  Levinsenia gracilis and Heteromastus filifirmis in offshore circalittoral mud and sandy mud
  Paramphinome jeffreysii, Thyasira spp. and Amphiura filiformis in offshore circalittoral sandy mud
  Myrtea spinifera and polychaetes in offshore circalittoral sandy mud
  Sublittoral mixed sediment
  Sublittoral mixed sediment in low or reduced salinity (lagoons)
  Sublittoral mixed sediment in variable salinity (estuaries)
  Aphelochaeta spp. and Polydora spp. in variable salinity infralittoral mixed sediment
  Crepidula fornicata and Mediomastus fragilis in variable salinity infralittoral mixed sediment
  Infralittoral mixed sediment
  Crepidula fornicata with ascidians and anemones on infralittoral coarse mixed sediment
  Sabella pavonina with sponges and anemones on infralittoral mixed sediment
  Venerupis senegalensis, Amphipholis squamata and Apseudes latreilli in infralittoral mixed sediment
  Limaria hians beds in tide-swept sublittoral muddy mixed sediment
  Ostrea edulis beds on shallow sublittoral muddy mixed sediment
  Circalittoral mixed sediment
  Cerianthus lloydii and other burrowing anemones in circalittoral muddy mixed sediment
  Cerianthus lloydii with Nemertesia spp. and other hydroids in circalittoral muddy mixed sediment
  Sparse Modiolus modiolus, dense Cerianthus lloydii and burrowing holothurians on sheltered circalittoral stones and mixed sediment
  Mysella bidentata and Thyasira spp. in circalittoral muddy mixed sediment
  Flustra foliacea and Hydrallmania falcata on tide-swept circalittoral mixed sediment
  Ophiothrix fragilis and/or Ophiocomina nigra brittlestar beds on sublittoral mixed sediment
  Offshore circalittoral mixed sediment
  Polychaete-rich deep Venus community in offshore mixed sediments
  Sublittoral macrophyte-dominated communities on sediments
  Maerl beds
  Phymatolithon calcareum maerl beds in infralittoral clean gravel or coarse sand
  Phymatolithon calcareum maerl beds with red seaweeds in shallow infralittoral clean gravel or coarse sand
  Phymatolithon calcareum maerl beds with Neopentadactyla mixta and other echinoderms in deeper infralittoral clean gravel or coarse sand
  Lithothamnion corallioides maerl beds on infralittoral muddy gravel
  Lithophyllum fasciculatum maerl beds on infralittoral mud
  Lithothamnion glaciale maerl beds in tide-swept variable salinity infralittoral gravel
  Kelp and seaweed communities on sublittoral sediment
  Laminaria saccharina and red seaweeds on infralittoral sediments
  Red seaweeds and kelps on tide-swept mobile infralittoral cobbles and pebbles
  Laminaria saccharina and robust red algae on infralittoral gravel and pebbles
  Laminaria saccharina and filamentous red algae on infralittoral sand
  Laminaria saccharina with red and brown seaweeds on lower infralittoral muddy mixed sediment
  Laminaria saccharina and Chorda filum on sheltered upper infralittoral muddy sediment
  Laminaria saccharina with Psammechinus miliaris and/or Modiolus modiolus on variable salinity infralittoral mixed sediment
  Laminaria saccharina, Gracilaria gracilis and brown seaweeds on full salinity infralittoral sediment
  Laminaria saccharina and Gracilaria gracilis with sponges and ascidians on variable salinity infralittoral sediment
  Mats of Trailliella on infralittoral muddy gravel
  Loose-lying mats of Phyllophora crispa on infralittoral muddy sediment
  Filamentous green seaweeds on low salinity infralittoral mixed sediment or rock
  Sublittoral seagrass beds
  Zostera marina/angustifolia beds on lower shore or infralittoral clean or muddy sand
  Ruppia maritima in reduced salinity infralittoral muddy sand
  Angiosperm communities in reduced salinity
  Potamogeton pectinatus community
  Phragmites australis swamp and reed beds
  Sublittoral biogenic reefs on sediment
  Polychaete worm reefs (on sublittoral sediment)
  Sabellaria spinulosa on stable circalittoral mixed sediment
  Sabellaria alveolata on variable salinity sublittoral mixed sediment
  Serpula vermicularis reefs on very sheltered circalittoral muddy sand
  Sublittoral mussel beds (on sublittoral sediment)
  Modiolus modiolus beds with hydroids and red seaweeds on tide-swept circalittoral mixed substrata
  Modiolus modiolus beds on open coast circalittoral mixed sediment
  Modiolus modiolus beds with fine hydroids and large solitary ascidians on very sheltered circalittoral mixed substrata
  Modiolus modiolus beds with Chlamys varia, sponges, hydroids and bryozoans on slightly tide-swept very sheltered circalittoral mixed substrata
  Mytilus edulis beds on sublittoral sediment
  Coral reefs
  Lophelia reefs
  Atlantic upper bathyal
  Atlantic upper bathyal rock and other hard substrata
  Barnacle dominated community on Atlantic upper bathyal rock and other hard substrata
  Bathylasma hirsutum assemblage on Atlantic upper bathyal rock and other hard substrata
  Brachiopod dominated community on Atlantic upper bathyal rock and other hard substrata
  Dallina septigera and Macandrevia cranium assemblage on Atlantic upper bathyal rock and other hard substrata
  Deep sponge aggregation on Atlantic upper bathyal rock and other hard substrata
  Reteporella and Axinellid sponges on Atlantic upper bathyal rock and other hard substrata
  Lobose sponge and stylasterid assemblage on Atlantic upper bathyal rock and other hard substrata
  Mixed cold water coral community on Atlantic upper bathyal rock and other hard substrata
  Discrete Lophelia pertusa colonies on Atlantic upper bathyal rock and other hard substrata
  Sparse encrusting community on Atlantic upper bathyal rock and other hard substrata
  Psolus squamatus, Anomiidae, serpulid polychaetes and Munida on Atlantic upper bathyal rock and other hard substrata
  Psolus squamatus and encrusting sponge assemblage on Atlantic upper bathyal rock and other hard substrata
  Atlantic upper bathyal coarse sediment
  Crinoid dominated community on Atlantic upper bathyal coarse sediment
  Leptometra celtica assemblage on Atlantic upper bathyal coarse sediment
  Mixed cold water coral community on Atlantic upper bathyal coarse sediment
  Discrete Lophelia pertusa colonies on Atlantic upper bathyal coarse sediment
  Solitary scleractinian field on Atlantic upper bathyal coarse sediment
  Caryophyllia smithii and Actinauge richardi assemblage on Atlantic upper bathyal coarse sediment
  Sparse encrusting community on Atlantic upper bathyal coarse sediment
  Pale encrusting sponges and serpulids on Atlantic upper bathyal coarse sediment
  Squat lobster assemblage on Atlantic upper bathyal coarse sediment (Lophelia rubble)
  Urchin dominated community on Atlantic upper bathyal coarse sediment
  Cidarid urchin assemblage on Atlantic upper bathyal coarse sediment
  Atlantic upper bathyal sand
  Burrowing ophiuroid community on Atlantic upper bathyal sand
  Crinoid dominated community on Atlantic upper bathyal sand
  Leptometra celtica assemblage on Atlantic upper bathyal sand
  Mixed infauna dominated by polychaetes in Atlantic upper bathyal sand
  Solitary scleractinian field on Atlantic upper bathyal sand
  Surface dwelling ophiuroid community on Atlantic upper bathyal sand
  Urchin dominated community on Atlantic upper bathyal sand
  Cidarid urchin assemblage on Atlantic upper bathyal sand
  Gracilechinus acutus norvegicus assemblage on Atlantic upper bathyal sand
  Atlantic upper bathyal mud
  Burrowing ophiuroid community on Atlantic upper bathyal mud
  Crinoid dominated community on Atlantic upper bathyal mud
  Solitary scleractinian field on Atlantic upper bathyal mud
  Sea pens and burrowing megafauna on Atlantic upper bathyal mud
  Kophobelemnon fields on Atlantic upper bathyal mud
  Atlantic upper bathyal mixed sediment
  Atlantic upper bathyal biogenic structure
  Atlantic upper bathyal cold water coral reef (biogenic structure)
  Mixed coral assemblage on Atlantic upper bathyal Lophelia pertusa reef framework (biogenic structure)
  Atlantic upper bathyal live Lophelia pertusa reef (biogenic structure)
  Atlantic mid bathyal
  Atlantic mid bathyal rock and other hard substrata
  Barnacle dominated community on Atlantic mid bathyal rock and other hard substrata
  Bathylasma hirsutum assemblage on Atlantic mid bathyal rock and other hard substrata
  Brachiopod dominated community on Atlantic mid bathyal rock and other hard substrata
  Dallina septigera and Macandrevia cranium assemblage on Atlantic mid bathyal rock and other hard substrata
  Mixed cold water coral community on Atlantic mid bathyal rock and other hard substrata
  Discrete Lophelia pertusa colonies on Atlantic mid bathyal rock and other hard substrata
  Sparse encrusting community on Atlantic mid bathyal rock and other hard substrata
  Psolus squamatus, Anomiidae, serpulid polychaetes and Munida on Atlantic mid bathyal rock and other hard substrata
  Psolus squamatus and encrusting sponge assemblage on Atlantic mid bathyal rock and other hard substrata
  Atlantic mid bathyal coarse sediment
  Crinoid dominated community on Atlantic mid bathyal coarse sediment
  Leptometra celtica assemblage on Atlantic mid bathyal coarse sediment
  Mixed cold water coral community on Atlantic mid bathyal coarse sediment
  Discrete Lophelia pertusa colonies on Atlantic mid bathyal coarse sediment
  Solitary scleractinian field on Atlantic mid bathyal coarse sediment
  Sparse encrusting community on Atlantic mid bathyal coarse sediment
  Pale encrusting sponges and serpulids on Atlantic mid bathyal coarse sediment
  Squat lobster assemblage on Atlantic mid bathyal coarse sediment (Lophelia rubble)
  Urchin dominated community on Atlantic mid bathyal coarse sediment
  Cidarid urchin assemblage on Atlantic mid bathyal coarse sediment
  Xenophyophore dominated community on Atlantic mid bathyal coarse sediment
  Syringammina fragilissima field on Atlantic mid bathyal coarse sediment
  Atlantic mid bathyal sand
  Burrowing anemone field in Atlantic mid bathyal sand
  Burrowing ophiuroid community on Atlantic mid bathyal sand
  Crinoid dominated community on Atlantic mid bathyal sand
  Leptometra celtica assemblage on Atlantic mid bathyal sand
  Solitary scleractinian field on Atlantic mid bathyal sand
  Surface dwelling ophiuroid community on Atlantic mid bathyal sand
  Urchin dominated community on Atlantic mid bathyal sand
  Cidarid urchin assemblage on Atlantic mid bathyal sand
  Gracilechinus acutus norvegicus assemblage on Atlantic mid bathyal sand
  Atlantic mid bathyal mud
  Burrowing anemone field in Atlantic mid bathyal mud
  Cerianthid anemones and burrowing megafauna in Atlantic mid bathyal mud
  Burrowing ophiuroid community on Atlantic mid bathyal mud
  Crinoid dominated community on Atlantic mid bathyal mud
  Deep sponge aggregation on Atlantic mid bathyal mud
  Pheronema carpenteri field on Atlantic mid bathyal mud
  Erect coral field on Atlantic mid bathyal mud
  Acanella arbuscula assemblage on Atlantic mid bathyal mud
  Mixed infauna dominated by polychaetes in Atlantic mid bathyal mud
  Solitary scleractinian field on Atlantic mid bathyal mud
  Sea pens and burrowing megafauna on Atlantic mid bathyal mud
  Kophobelemnon fields on Atlantic mid bathyal mud
  Urchin dominated community on Atlantic mid bathyal mud
  Gracilechinus acutus norvegicus assemblage on Atlantic mid bathyal mud
  Xenophyophore dominated community on Atlantic mid bathyal mud
  Syringammina fragilissima field on Atlantic mid bathyal mud
  Atlantic mid bathyal mixed sediment
  Xenophyophore dominated community on Atlantic mid bathyal mixed sediment
  Syringammina fragilissima field on Atlantic mid bathyal mixed sediment
  Atlantic mid bathyal biogenic structure
  Atlantic mid bathyal cold water coral reef (biogenic structure)
  Mixed coral assemblage on Atlantic mid bathyal Lophelia pertusa reef framework (biogenic structure)
  Atlantic lower bathyal
  Atlantic lower bathyal rock and other hard substrata
  Mixed cold water coral community on Atlantic lower bathyal rock and other hard substrata
  Discrete Solenosmilia variabilis colonies on Atlantic lower bathyal rock and other hard substrata
  Atlantic lower bathyal coarse sediment
  Mixed cold water coral community on Atlantic lower bathyal coarse sediment
  Discrete Solenosmilia variabilis colonies on Atlantic lower bathyal coarse sediment
  Solitary scleractinian field on Atlantic lower bathyal coarse sediment
  Xenophyophore dominated community on Atlantic lower bathyal coarse sediment
  Syringammina fragilissima field on Atlantic lower bathyal coarse sediment
  Atlantic lower bathyal sand
  Burrowing ophiuroid community on Atlantic lower bathyal sand
  Mixed infauna dominated by polychaetes in Atlantic mid bathyal sand
  Solitary scleractinian field on Atlantic lower bathyal sand
  Urchin dominated community on Atlantic lower bathyal sand
  Gracilechinus acutus norvegicus assemblage on Atlantic lower bathyal sand
  Atlantic lower bathyal mud
  Burrowing ophiuroid community on Atlantic lower bathyal mud
  Deep sponge aggregation on Atlantic lower bathyal mud
  Pheronema carpenteri field on Atlantic lower bathyal mud
  Erect coral field on Atlantic lower bathyal mud
  Acanella arbuscula assemblage on Atlantic lower bathyal mud
  Mixed infauna dominated by polychaetes in Atlantic lower bathyal mud
  Solitary scleractinian field on Atlantic lower bathyal mud
  Urchin dominated community on Atlantic lower bathyal mud
  Gracilechinus acutus norvegicus assemblage on Atlantic lower bathyal mud
  Gracilechinus alexandri, Psilaster and Plinthaster assemblage on Atlantic lower bathyal mud
  Xenophyophore dominated community on Atlantic lower bathyal mud
  Syringammina fragilissima field on Atlantic lower bathyal mud
  Atlantic lower bathyal mixed sediment
  Surface dwelling ophiuroid community on Atlantic lower bathyal mixed sediment
  Ophiomusium lymani and cerianthid anemone assemblage on Atlantic lower bathyal mixed sediment
  Xenophyophore dominated community on Atlantic lower bathyal mixed sediment
  Syringammina fragilissima field on Atlantic lower bathyal mixed sediment
  Atlantic lower bathyal biogenic structure
  Atlantic lower bathyal cold water coral reef (biogenic structure)
  Mixed coral assemblage on Atlantic lower bathyal Solenosmilia reef framework (biogenic structure)
  Atlantic lower bathyal live Solenosmilia variabilis reef (biogenic structure)
  Atlantic upper abyssal
  Atlantic upper abyssal rock and other hard substrata
  Atlantic upper abyssal coarse sediment
  Atlantic upper abyssal sand
  Atlantic upper abyssal mud
  Holothurian dominated community on Atlantic upper abyssal mud
  Hygrosoma petersii, Benthothuria funebris and Oneirophanta assemblage on Atlantic upper abyssal mud
  Mixed infauna dominated by polychaetes in Atlantic upper abyssal mud
  Urchin dominated community on Atlantic upper abyssal mud
  Gracilechinus alexandri, Psilaster and Plinthaster assemblage on Atlantic upper abyssal mud
  Atlantic upper abyssal mixed sediment
  Atlantic upper abyssal biogenic structure
  Atlantic mid abyssal
  Atlantic mid abyssal rock and other hard substrata
  Atlantic mid abyssal coarse sediment
  Atlantic mid abyssal sand
  Atlantic mid abyssal mud
  Crinoid dominated community on Atlantic mid abyssal mud
  Thaumatocrinus jungerseni assemblage on Atlantic mid abyssal mud
  Holothurian dominated community on Atlantic mid abyssal mud
  Psycropotes longicauda and Oneirophanta mutabilis assemblage on Atlantic mid abyssal mud
  Atlantic mid abyssal mixed sediment
  Atlantic mid abyssal biogenic structure
  Atlantic lower abyssal
  Atlantic lower abyssal rock and other hard substrata
  Atlantic lower abyssal coarse sediment
  Atlantic lower abyssal sand
  Atlantic lower abyssal mud
  Atlantic lower abyssal mixed sediment
  Atlantic lower abyssal biogenic structure
  Arctic mid bathyal
  Arctic mid bathyal rock and other hard substrata
  Crinoid dominated community on Arctic mid bathyal rock and other hard substrata
  Heliometra glacialis, Actinostolid anemones and tube worm assemblage on Arctic mid bathyal rock and other hard substrata
  Mixed cold water coral community on Arctic mid bathyal rock and other hard substrata
  Corymorpha, Gersemia, Zoantharia and Heliometra glacialis on Arctic mid bathyal rock and other hard substrata
  Arctic mid bathyal coarse sediment
  Burrowing anemone field in Arctic mid bathyal coarse sediment
  Arctic mid bathyal sand
  Mixed infauna dominated by polychaetes in Arctic mid bathyal sand
  Arctic mid bathyal mud
  Mixed infauna dominated by polychaetes in Arctic mid bathyal mud
  Arctic mid bathyal mixed sediment
  Arctic mid bathyal biogenic structure
  Arctic lower bathyal
  Arctic lower bathyal rock and other hard substrata
  Arctic lower bathyal coarse sediment
  Arctic lower bathyal sand
  Arctic lower bathyal mud
  Mixed infauna dominated by polychaetes in Arctic lower bathyal mud
  Arctic lower bathyal mixed sediment
  Arctic lower bathyal biogenic structure
  Arctic upper abyssal
  Arctic upper abyssal rock and other hard substrata
  Arctic upper abyssal coarse sediment
  Arctic upper abyssal sand
  Arctic upper abyssal mud
  Mixed infauna dominated by polychaetes in Arctic upper abyssal mud
  Arctic upper abyssal mixed sediment
  Arctic upper abyssal biogenic structure
  Atlanto-Arctic upper bathyal
  Atlanto-Arctic upper bathyal rock and other hard substrata
  Atlanto-Arctic upper bathyal coarse sediment
  Deep sponge aggregation on Atlanto-Arctic upper bathyal mixed sediment
  Geodia and other massive sponges on Atlanto-Arctic upper bathyal coarse sediment
  Sparse encrusting community on Atlanto-Arctic upper bathyal coarse sediment
  Pale encrusting sponges and serpulids on Atlanto-Arctic upper bathyal coarse sediment
  Atlanto-Arctic upper bathyal sand
  Atlanto-Arctic upper bathyal mud
  Atlanto-Arctic upper bathyal mixed sediment
  Deep sponge aggregation on Atlanto-Arctic upper bathyal mixed sediment
  Geodia and other massive sponges on Atlanto-Arctic upper bathyal mixed sediment
  Atlanto-Arctic upper bathyal biogenic structure

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Version 15.03 of the classification adds a deep-sea section to version 04.05; therefore superseding version 04.05, 97.06 and 03.02.

This online classification should be cited as:

JNCC (2015) The Marine Habitat Classification for Britain and Ireland Version 15.03 [Online]. [Date accessed]. Available from: jncc.defra.gov.uk/MarineHabitatClassification

Information from the shallower section (up to sublittoral sediment, taken from Version 04.05) be cited as the report accompanying Version 04.05, as follows:

CONNOR, D.W., J.H. ALLEN, N.GOLDING, K.L.HOWELL, L.M. LIEBERKNECHT, K.O. NORTHEN AND J.B. REKER (2004) The Marine Habitat Classification for Britain and Ireland Version 04.05. In: JNCC (2015) The Marine Habitat Classification for Britain and Ireland Version 15.03 [Online]. [Date accessed].
Available from: jncc.defra.gov.uk/MarineHabitatClassification
ISBN 1 861 07561 8


Information from the deep-sea section (added in March 2015) should be cited as the report accompanying the deep-sea section, as follows:

PARRY, M.E.V., K.L. HOWELL, B.E. NARAYANASWAMY, B.J. BETT, D.O.B. JONES, D.J. HUGHES, N. PIECHAUD, T.D. NICKELL, H. ELLWOOD, N. ASKEW, C. JENKINS and E. MANCA (2015) A Deep-sea Section for the Marine Habitat Classification of Britain and Ireland. JNCC report 530. In: JNCC (2015) The Marine Habitat Classification for Britain and Ireland Version 15.03 [Online]. [Date accessed].
Available from: jncc.defra.gov.uk/MarineHabitatClassification
ISSN 0963 8901